CHINESE Facts & Figures

Size: 3,704,427 square miles

Population: 1,339,724852

Capital: Beijing

Currency: Renminbi

Weather / Climate:

The territory of China lies between latitudes 18° and 54° N, and longitudes 73° and 135° E. The country's vast size gives it a wide variety of landscapes. In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains, while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, broad grasslands are visible. Southern China is dominated by hill country and low mountain ranges, while the central-east hosts the deltas of China's two major rivers, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. Other major rivers include the Xi, Mekong, Brahmaputra and Amur. To the west, major mountain ranges, most notably the Himalayas, and high plateaus feature among the more arid landscapes of the north, such as the Taklamakan and the Gobi Desert. China's highest point, Mt. Everest (8848m), lies on the Sino-Nepalese border. The country's lowest point is the dried lake bed of Ayding Lake (-154m) in the Turpan Depression.

A major environmental issue in China is the continued expansion of its deserts, particularly the Gobi Desert, which is currently the world's fifth-largest desert. Although barrier tree lines planted since the 1970s have reduced the frequency of sandstorms, prolonged drought and poor agricultural practices have resulted in dust storms plaguing northern China each spring, which then spread to other parts of East Asia, including Korea and Japan. According to China's environmental watchdog, Sepa, China is losing a million acres (4,000 km²) per year to desertification. Water quality, erosion, and pollution control have become important issues in China's relations with other countries. Melting glaciers in the Himalayas could potentially lead to water shortages for hundreds of millions of people.

China's climate is mainly dominated by dry seasons and wet monsoons, which lead to a pronounced temperature differences between winter and summer. In the winter, northern winds coming from high-altitude areas are cold and dry; in summer, southern winds from coastal areas at lower altitudes are warm and moist. The climate in China differs from region to region because of the country's extensive and complex topography.

Taken from wikipedia

CHINESE languages

The spoken languages of nationalities that are a part of the People's Republic of China belong to at least seven families:

·The Sino-Tibetan family: 28 nationalities (including the Han and Tibetans)

·The Hmong–Mien family

·The Altaic family (disputed)

- Turkic languages: Uyghurs, Kazakhs, Salars, etc.

- Mongolic languages: Mongols, Dongxiang, and related groups

- Tungusic languages: Manchus (formerly), Hezhe, etc.

- Korean languages: Koreans

·The Austroasiatic family: 4 (the De'ang, Blang, Gin (Vietnamese), and Wa)

·The Tai–Kadai family: several languages spoken by the Zhuang, the Buyei, the Dai people, the Dong people, and the Hlai (Li people).

·The Indo-European family: 2 (the Russians and Tajiks). There is also a heavily Persian-influenced Äynu language spoken by the Äynu people in southwestern Xinjiang who are officially considered Uyghurs.

·The Austronesian family: 1 official nationality (the Gaoshan, who speak many languages), 1 unofficial (the Utsuls, who speak the Tsat language but are considered Hui.)

LANGUAGES OF HONG KONG

English and Chinese

English and Chinese are both official languages of Hong Kong under the Hong Kong Basic Law (Article 9) and the Official Languages Ordinance (Chapter 5).

Historically, English was the sole official language of Hong Kong from 1883 to 1974. Only after numerous demonstrations and petitions from the locals demanding for the equal official status of Chinese as that of English[1], Chinese became another official language in Hong Kong from 1974 onwards. In March 1987, the Official Languages Ordinance was amended to require all new legislation to be enacted bilingually in both English and Chinese. In 1990, the Hong Kong Basic Law declared English's co-official language status with Chinese after the 1997 handover.

Other European Languages

French

In Hong Kong, French is the second most studied foreign language after Japanese. Many institutions in Hong Kong, like Alliance française, provide French courses. Local universities, such as the University of Hong Kong, the Chinese University of Hong Kong and Baptist University offer programmes which aim at developing proficiency in French language and culture.

German

This is a cup pad used in a western restaurant called "Das Gute" in Sha Tin, Hong Kong. Note that the name of the restaurant, as well as the words on the cup pad, are in German.

The exact number of German speakers in Hong Kong is about 5000, significant enough for the establishment of the German Swiss International School (Deutsch-Schweizerische Internationale Schule), which claims to number more than 1,000 students, at The Peak of Hong Kong Island.[9]. Many institutions in Hong Kong provide German courses. The most well-known one is the Goethe-Institut, which is located in Wan Chai.

LANGUAGES OF MACAU

Macanese language

Macaneseor Macau Creole (known as Patuá to its speakers) is a creole language derived mainly from Malay, Sinhalese, Cantonese, and Portuguese, which was originally spoken by the Macanese community of the Portuguese colony of Macau. It is now spoken by a few families in Macau and in the Macanese diaspora.

On February 20, 2009, the new edition of UNESCO’s Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger classified Patua as a "critically endangered" language. The Atlas puts the number of Patua speakers at 50 as of the year 2000.

The language is also called by its speakers Papia Cristam di Macau ("Christian speech of Macau"), and has been nicknamed Dóci Língu di Macau ("Sweet Language of Macau") and Doci Papiaçam ("sweet speech") by poets. In Portuguese it is called Macaense, Macaista Chapado ("pure Macanese"), or Patuá (from French patois)

Taken from wikipedia

CHINESE culture

 

CHINESE people

The demographics of the People's Republic of China are identified by a large population with a relatively small youth division, which is partially a result of the People's Republic of China's one-child policy. The population policies implemented in China since 1979 have helped to prevent between 350 and 400 Million more births.[1]

Today, China's population is over 1.3 billion, the largest of any country in the world. According to the 2010 census, 91.51% of the population was of the Han nationality, and 8.49% were minorities. China's population growth rate is only 0.47%, ranking 156th in the world. China conducted its sixth national population census on November 1, 2010.

People's Republic of China

The population of China was about 1.24 billion inhabitants, according to the 1 November 2000 census[1]. Some four years later, more specifically on 6 January 2005, it officially reached 1.3 billion[2]. The November 2010 census recorded 1.34 billion inhabitants.[1] The PRC is very concerned about its population growth and has attempted with mixed results to implement a strict family planning policy. The government's goal is one child per family, with exceptions in rural areas and for ethnic minorities. Official government policy opposes forced abortion or sterilization, but allegations of coercion continue as local officials strive to meet population targets. The government's goal is to stabilize the population early in the 21st century, although some current projections estimate a population of anywhere ranging from 1.4 to 1.6 billion by 2025.

Religion plays a significant part in the life of many Chinese. Buddhism is most widely practiced, with an estimated 100 million adherents. Traditional Taoism also is practiced. Official figures indicate there are 18 million Muslims, 4 million Catholics, and 10 million Protestants; however, unofficial estimates are much higher.

Languages spoken include 'Standard Chinese' or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Hunanese, Gan, Hakka dialects, and minority languages.

Hong Kong

Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated areas in the world with an overall density of some 6,300 people per square kilometre. The term "densely populated, green city" is used to describe the majority of the people living in apartments in high-rise buildings, and most land reserved for open spaces, country parks, and woodland.

According to statistics released in 2006, Hong Kong has the world’s lowest birth rate—0.9 per woman of child-bearing age, far below the replacement rate of 2.1. With just 966 babies being born to every 1000 fertile women, it is estimated that 26.8% of the population will be aged 65 or more in 2033, up from 12.1% in 2005.

Macau

Macau's population is 95% Chinese (Han ethnicity), primarily Cantonese and some Hakka, both from nearby Guangdong Province. The remainder are of Portuguese or mixed Chinese-Portuguese ancestry. The official languages are Portuguese and Mandarin, though the residents commonly speak Cantonese. English is spoken in tourist areas. Macau has only one university (University of Macau); most of its 7,700 students are from Hong Kong.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_China

CHINESE food

Chinese cuisine is any of several styles originating in the regions of China, some of which have become highly popular in other parts of the world – from Asia to the Americas, Australia, Western Europe and Southern Africa. The history of Chinese cuisine stretches back for many centuries and produced both change from period to period and variety in what could be called traditional Chinese food, leading Chinese to pride themselves on eating a wide range of foods. Major traditions include Anhui, Cantonese, Fujian, Hunan, Jiangsu, Shandong, Szechuan, and Zhejiang cuisines.[1]

Eight Culinary Traditions of China

Chinese dishes may be categorized as one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of China, also called the "Eight Regional Cuisines" and the "Eight Cuisines of China". They are as follows:

  • Hui: Anhui
  • Yue (Cantonese): Guangdong
  • Min: Fujian
  • Xiang: Hunan (Can include Xiangjiang Region, Dongting Lake and Xiangxi styles)
  • Su (aka Huaiyang Cuisine): Jiangsu
  • Lu: Shandong (Include Jinan, Jiaodong styles, etc.)
  • Chuan: Sichuan
  • Zhe: Zhejiang (Can include Hangzhou, Ningbo, and Shaoxing styles

Regional cuisines

A number of different styles contribute to Chinese cuisine, but perhaps the best known and most influential are Guangdong (Cantonese) cuisine, Shandong cuisine, Jiangsu cuisine and Sichuan cuisine.[2][3][4] These styles are distinctive from one another due to factors such as available resources, climate, geography, history, cooking techniques and lifestyle. One style may favour the use of lots of garlic and shallots over lots of chilli and spices, while another may favour preparing seafood over other meats and fowl. Jiangsu cuisine favours cooking techniques such as braising and stewing, while Sichuan cuisine employs baking, just to name a few.[2] Hairy crab is a highly sought after local delicacy in Shanghai, as it can be found in lakes within the region. BeijingRoast Duck (otherwise known as 'Peking Duck') is another popular dish that's well known outside of China.[2] Based on the raw materials and ingredients used, the method of preparation, and cultural differences, a variety of foods with different flavours and textures are prepared in different regions of the country. Many traditional regional cuisines rely on basic methods of preservation such as drying, salting, pickling and fermentation.[5]

Chuan (Sichuan)

Szechuan cuisine, also called Sichuan cuisine, is a style of Chinese cuisine originating in the Sichuan Province of southwestern China famed for bold flavors, particularly the pungency and spiciness resulting from liberal use of garlic and chili peppers, as well as the unique flavour of the Sichuan peppercorn and zhitianjiao. Peanuts, sesame paste and ginger are also prominent ingredients in Szechuan cooking.

Hui (Anhui)

Anhuicuisine is one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of China. It is derived from the native cooking styles of the Huangshan Mountains region in China and is similar to Jiangsu cuisine, but has less emphasis on seafood, and more on a wide variety of local herbs and vegetables. Anhui province is particularly endowed with fresh bamboo and mushroom crops.

Lu (Shandong)

Shandong Cuisine is commonly and simply known as Lu cuisine. With a long history, Shandong Cuisine once formed an important part of the imperial cuisine and was widely promoted in the north China. However it isn't so popular in south China and even in the all-embracing Shanghai.

Shandong Cuisine is featured by a variety of cooking techniques and seafood. The typical dishes on local menu are braised abalone, braised trepang, sweet and sour carp, Jiuzhuan Dachang and Dezhou Chicken. Various Shandong snacks are also worth trying.

Min (Fujian)

Fujiancuisine is a traditional Chinese cuisine.[1] Many diverse seafoods are used, including hundreds of types of fish, shellfish and turtles, provided by the Fujian coastal region.[1] Woodland delicacies such as edible mushrooms and bamboo shoots are also utilized.[1] Slicing techniques are valued in the cuisine, and utilized to enhance the flavor, aroma and texture of seafood and other foods.[1] Fujian cuisine is often served in a broth or soup, and cooking techniques include braising, stewing, steaming and boiling.[1]

Su (Jiangsu, Huaiyang cuisine)

Jiangsucuisine, also known as Su (Cai) Cuisine for short, is one of the major components of Chinese cuisine, and consists of the styles of Yangzhou, Nanjing, Suzhou and Zhenjiang dishes. It is very famous in the whole world for its distinctive style and taste. It is especially popular in the lower reach of the Yangtze River.

Typical courses of Jiangsu cuisine are Jinling salted dried duck (Nanjing's most famous dish), crystal meat (pork heels in a bright, brown sauce), clear crab shell meatballs (pork meatballs in crab shell powder, fatty, yet fresh), Yangzhou steamed Jerky strips (dried tofu, chicken, ham and pea leaves), triple combo duck, dried duck, and Farewell My Concubine (soft-shelled turtle stewed with many other ingredients such as chicken, mushrooms and wine).

Yue (Hong Kong and Guangdong)

Dim sum, literally "touch your heart", is a Cantonese term for small hearty dishes.[2] These bite-sized portions are prepared using traditional cooking methods such as frying, steaming, stewing and baking. It is designed so that one person may taste a variety of different dishes. Some of these may include rice rolls, lotus leaf rice, turnip cakes, buns, shui jiao-style dumplings, stir-fried green vegetables, congeeporridge, soups, etc. The Cantonese style of dining, yum cha, combines the variety of dim sum dishes with the drinking of tea. Yum cha literally means 'drink tea'.[2] Cantonese style is the unique and charm dishes, possess reputation abroad or in the domestic. Long, long history. It is common with other parts of the diet and cuisine in Chinese food culture. Back in ancient times, and the Central Plains on Lingnan Yue Chu family has close contacts. With the historical changes and the changes of dynasty, many people escaped the war and crossed the Central Plains, the increasing integration of the two communities. Central Plains culture gradually moved to the south, their food production techniques, cookware, utensils and property turned into a rich combination of Agriculture, and this is the origin of Cantonese food. Cantonese cuisine originated in the Han.

Xiang (Hunan)

Hunancuisine is well known for its hot spicy flavor,[6] fresh aroma and deep color. Common cooking techniques include stewing, frying, pot-roasting, braising, and smoking. Due to the high agricultural output of the region, ingredients for Hunan dishes are many and varied.

Xinjiang

The cuisine of Xinjiang reflects the region's many ethnic groups, and refers particularly to Uyghur cuisine. Signature ingredients include roast mutton, kebabs, roast fish and rice.[7] Because of the Islamic population, the food is predominantly halal.

Zhe (Zhejiang)

Zhejiang cuisine, one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of China, derives from the native cooking styles of the Zhejiang region. The dishes are not greasy, having but instead have a fresh, soft flavor with a mellow fragrance.

The cuisine consists of at least three styles. These a each originate from a different city in the province:

  • Hangzhoustyle, characterized by rich variations and the use of bamboo shoots
  • Shaoxing style, specializing in poultry and freshwater fish
  • Ningbostyle, specializing in seafood

Other

Many other regions with unique dishes and styles are represented in China, including the cuisine of Macau and Hainan.

Staple foods

Rice

Rice is a major staple food for people from rice farming areas in southern ChinaIt is most commonly eaten in the form of steamed rice. Rice is also used to produce beers, wines and vinegars.

Noodles

Misua noodle making in Lukang, Taiwan

Chinese noodles come dry or fresh in a variety of sizes, shapes and textures and are often served in soups or fried as toppings. Some varieties, such as Shou Mian (literally noodles of longevity), are symbolic of long life and good health according to Chinese tradition.[2]

Soybeans

Tofu is made of soybeans and is another popular product that supplies protein.[5]

Wheat

In wheat farming areas in Northern China, people largely rely on flour based food such as noodles, breads, dumplings and steamed buns.[2]

Vegetables

Some common vegetables used in Chinese cuisine include bok choy (Chinese cabbage), Chinese Spinach (dao-mieu), On Choy, Yu Choy, and gailan (guy-lahn).

Herbs

Herbs were important to the Chinese people, especially during the Han Dynasty

Seasonings

When it comes to sauces, China is home to soy sauce, which is made from fermented soya beans and wheat. Oyster sauce, transparent rice vinegar, Chinkiang black rice vinegar, fish sauce and fermented tofu (furu) are also widely used. A number of sauces are based on fermented soybeans, including Hoisin sauce, ground bean sauce and yellow bean sauce. Spices and seasonings such as fresh root ginger, garlic, spring onion, white pepper, sesame oil are widely used in many regional cuisines. Sichuan peppercorns, star anise, cinnamon, fennel, cloves.[8] To provide extra flavors to dishes, many Chinese cuisines also contain dried Chinese mushrooms, dried baby shrimps, dried tangerine peel,[9] dried Sichuan chillies as well.

Desserts

Chinese desserts are sweet foods and dishes that are served with tea, along with meals[10] or at the end of meals in Chinese cuisine.Bings are baked wheat flour based confections, and include moon cake Red bean paste pancake and sun cakes. Chinese candies and sweets, called táng[10] are usually made with cane sugar, malt sugar, honey, nuts and fruit. Gao or Guo are rice based snacks that are typically steamed[10] and may be made from glutinous or normal rice. Ice cream is commonly available throughout China.[10] Another cold dessert is called baobing, which is shaved ice with sweet syrup.[10] Chinese jellies are known collectively in the language as ices. Many jelly desserts are traditionally set with agar and are flavored with fruits, though gelatin based jellies are also common in contemporary desserts. Chinese dessert soups typically consist of sweet and usually hot soups[10] and custards.

Beverages

Tea

Longjing tea, also known as Dragon Well tea, is a variety of roasted green tea from Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, where it is produced mostly by hand and has been renowned for its high quality, earning the China Famous Tea title.

Main article: Chinese tea

As well as with dim sum, many Chinese drink their tea with snacks such as nuts, plums, dried fruit (in particular jujube), small sweets, melon seeds, and waxberry.[2] China was the earliest country to cultivate and drink tea and it is enjoyed by people from all social classes.[11] Tea processing began after the Qin and Han Dynasties.[11] Chinese tea is often classified into several different categories according to the species of plant from which it is sourced, the region in which it is grown, and the method of production used. Some of these are green tea, oolong tea, black tea, scented tea, white tea, and compressed tea. There are four major tea plantation regions in China. They are Jiangbei, Jiangnan, Huanan and the southwestern region.[11]Well known types of green tea include Longjing, Huangshan, Mao Feng, Bilochun, Putuofeng Cha, and Liu'an Guapian.[12] China is the world’s largest exporter of green tea.[12] One of the most ubiquitous accessories in modern China, after a wallet or purse and an umbrella, is a double-walled insulated glass thermos with tea leaves in the top behind a strainer.

Liquor

Main article: Chinese alcoholic beverages

Yellow wine has a long history in China, where the unique beverage is produced from rice and ranges between 10–15% alcohol content.[2] The most popular brands include Shaoxing Lao Jiu, Shaoxing Hua Diao and Te Jia Fan.[2]Wheat, corn and rice are used to produce Chinese liquor which is clear and aromatic, containing approximately 60% alcohol. This also has a long history in China, with production believed to date back to the Song Dynasty.[2] Some popular brands of liquor include Er guo tou, Du Kang, Mao Tai, Lu Zhou Te Qu and Wu Liang Ye.[2]

Herbal drinks

Main article: Chinese herb tea

Chinese herb tea, also known as medicinal herbal tea, is a kind of tea-soup made from purely Chinese medicinal herbs

Medicine Cuisine

Chinese medicine cuisine is an important part in Chinese cuisine. Its origins can be traced to as early as B.C 1046. It developed in Han Dynasty (A.D 200). In Chinese traditional medicine, medicine can be characterized as 'four properties and five flavors. The 'four properties' refer to 'cold','cool','warm', and 'hot', and the 'five flavors' refer to 'spicy','sour','sweet','bitter', and 'salty'[13]. Chinese medical doctors believe that some kinds of food have the 'four properties and five flavors' as well, which can not only serve for meal, but are also beneficial for health. This theory is called 'the homology of medicine and food in traditional Chinese medicine, and this is also the basis for Chinese medicine cuisine.

Chinese medicine cuisine applies 'the homology of medicine and food' theory and makes the food and medicine consistent with each other according to the 'four properties', while the 'five flavors' aim at curing specific symptoms or strengthening body[14]. It is because the medical property of medicine and the edible property of food are combined in cooking that the Chinese medicine cuisine is beneficial for health with good color,flavor, and taste.

Based on the effect, Chinese medicine cuisine can be categorized into four categories.

Taken from wikipedia

Places to go in CHINA

 

 

 

 

 

 

Doing business in CHINA

China has witnessed a history that spans over approximately 5000 years and has experienced periods of communism and Maoism, civil war, invasion and even bankruptcy. Since China first opened its doors to foreign investment and trade in 1978, the country has undergone immense political and economical change. Today, following her 2001 entry into the World trade Organisation, China offers a huge potential market for investment and sales with her main industry generated from iron, steel, coal, textiles, and petroleum. Those organisations venturing into business with China, however, will also need to consider the aspects of Chinese business culture and etiquette in order to fully succeed.

Working in China

Working practices in China

- When doing business in China, punctuality is considered extremely important. Your Chinese counterparts will not keep you waiting; being on time is essential

- It is rare that the Chinese will deal with people they don’t know or trust. Establishing a proper introduction with your counterparts is vital before entering into business.

Structure and hierarchy in Chinese companies

- The hierarchical structures of Chinese society and business organisations are based on a strict observation of rank where the individual is subordinate to the organisation.

- People will enter the meeting room in hierarchical order, as the Chinese are very status conscious. Senior members generally lead the negotiations and will direct the discussion.

Working relationships in China

- Long-term relationships are considered more valuable then hurried transactions.

- In Chinese business culture, the warm, hospitable character of your counterpart does not necessarily equal a positive outcome. Trust, based on a beneficial relationship is more important.

- The collectivist way of thinking is still important in Chinese business today and will influence many negotiations.
Doing business in China

Business practices in China

- The exchanging of business cards in customary in Chinese business culture. One side should be printed in English and one in Chinese. You should present your card with both hands and with the Chinese side facing up. When accepting your colleague’s card study it carefully before placing it on the table, never in the back pocket, as this is extremely disrespectful.

- During negotiations, humbleness and patience is the key to success. The Chinese sense of time means that they use it knowingly and there is always enough.

- In most cases, initial meetings may be more of a social opportunity as oppose to a negotiation discussion.

- An important element before commencing a business meeting in China is to engage in small talk. Be prepared, as this may include quite personal questions.

Chinese business etiquette (Do's and Don'ts)

DO maintain eye contact with your interlocutor, avoiding eye contact is considered untrustworthy.

DO address your Chinese counterparts with a title and their last name. If the person does not have a title, use ‘Mr’ or ‘Madam’.

DO wait for your Chinese counterpart to initiate formal greetings. Handshakes are the most popular gesture.

DON’T assume that a nod is a sign of agreement. More often than not, it signifies that the person is simply listening.

DON’T show excessive emotion whilst conducting business, as it may seem unfriendly

DON’T use direct negative replies, as they are considered impolite. Instead of saying ‘no’, answer ‘maybe’ or ‘I’ll think about it.’

Taken from www.communicaid.com

CHINA: useful links

www.chinatoday.com/

www.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/1287798.stm

www.china.org.cn/

www.cnto.org/

www.tourismchina.org/

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