CHILEAN Facts & Figures

Size: 292,183 square miles

Population: 16,888,760

Capital: Santiago

Currency: Peso

Weather / Climate:

The climate of Chile comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large geographic scale, extending across 38 degrees in latitude, making generalisations difficult. According to the Köppen system, Chile within its borders hosts at least seven major climatic subtypes, ranging from desert in the north, to alpine tundra and glaciers in the east and south east, humid subtropical in Easter Island, Oceanic in the south and Mediterranean climate in central Chile. There are four seasons in most of the country: summer (December to February), autumn (March to May), winter (June to August), and spring (September to November).

Taken from wikipedia

CHILEAN languages

The Republic of Chile is an overwhelmingly Spanish-speaking country, with the exceptions of isolated native and immigrant communities. According to Ethnologue, Chile has nine living languages and seven extinct.[1]


Of the 17 million Chileans, some 14 million speak Chilean Spanish as their first language.[1] It is a Spanish dialect which is sometimes difficult for speakers of the Castilian variant of Spanish to understand. It is very similar to Andalusian Spanish in pronunciation but it does have a lot of local slang.

Native Langauges


There are some 700,000 Mapuche living in Chile, whereof 200,000 still speak Mapudungun.[1]


Chilean Quechua has some 8,200 speakers in the far northeast high planes. It is believed to possibly be identical to South Bolivian Quechua or at the very least highly intelligible with it.[1]

Rapa Nui

Rapa Nui the Polynesian language of Easter Island, is spoken by some 3,400 Chileans, whereof 2,200 live on Easter Island and some 200 live on the mainland.


·Huilliche or Chesungun had 2,000 speakers in 1982, living in the Los Ríos and Los Lagos regions. As most of those speakers were elderly, it is uncertain if there are any existing speakers today.[1]


·Central Aymará has 899 speakers in the Arica and Putre provinces.[1]

·Kawésqar has only 20 remaining speakers.[1]

·Yámana has Cristina Calderón as a sole speaker and will likely become extinct soon.[2]

Extinct languages

Some indigenous languages of Chile now extinct are Diaguita, Kakauhua, Kunza and Selknam.[1]


Although it is estimated that 150,000 to 200,000 Chileans have some German ancestry, the number who speak German has been in decline since the end of World War II. In the 1980s it was estimated that some 35,000 German Chileans spoke German,[1] but today it is spoken only by some 20,000, most of them living in the 10th administrative region, Región de Los Lagos.[3]

Chilean Sign Language

According to the World Federation of the Deaf 2008 survey report for South America, Chile's official number of deaf citizens is 66,500.[4] The number who master Chilean Sign Language is uncertain, but if it follows the general norm of one in four deaf persons having learnt sign language, the number of sign language users in Chile should be around 16,000.


CHILEAN people

Chilean people, or simply Chileans, are the native citizens and long-term immigrants of Chile. Chileans are mainly of Spanish and Amerindian descent,[3] with small but significant traces of 19th and 20th century European immigrant origin. A strong correlation exists between the ancestry — or ethnicity — and socioeconomic situation of Chileans, with notable differences observed between the lower classes of high Amerindian ancestry and the upper classes of mainly European ancestry.[4][5]

Post-independence immigrants have never comprised more than two percent of the total population, though their descendants are now hundreds of thousands, including Chileans of German,[6] British, French, Croatian, Italian or Palestinian[7] descent. Though majority of Chileans reside in Chile, significant communities have been established in multiple countries, most noticeably Argentina[8] and the United States.[9] Other large Chilean communities are in Australia, Canada, France and Sweden. Although small in number Chilean people make up a substantial part of the permanent population of Antarctica and the Falkland Islands.[10]

Chile is a multiethnic society,[11] which means that it is home to people of many different ethnic backgrounds. The following studies on the ethnic structure of Chile are non-conclusive, and therefore might vary significantly from one another.

UNAM professor of Latin American studies, Francisco Lizcano, estimates that a predominant 52.7% of the Chilean population is of European origin, with an estimated 44% of Mestizo descent.[12] Other sources put the total amount of Caucasians at over 60 percent.[13] Concurrently, a public health book from the University of Chile states that 30% of the population is of Caucasian origin; predominatly-White Mestizos are estimated to amount a total of 65%, while Amerindians comprise the remaining 5%.[14]

Another study by the University of Chile found that the average Chilean's genes are 64% Caucasian and 35% Amerindian.[15] Some publications, such as the CIA World Factbook, state that the entire population consist of a combined 95.4% of Caucasians and mestizos, and 4.6% of Amerindians. These figures are based on a national census held in 2002, which classified the population as indigenous and non-indigenous, rather than as white or Mestizo.[16]

Other genetic studies have found that in Chile's capital Santiago, about 84% of mitochondrial DNA is of Amerindian origin, while the European contribution in the Y chromosome is about 70%,[17] and between 6% to 15% Native American, depending on the area of the city.[18]

Native American and European genetic contribution can vary by socioeconomic stratum. Amerindian genetic contribution is 27% in the high-income groups, 32% in the middle-income groups and 52% in low-income groups,[19] while European admixture in cities such as Santiago varies between 41% in low socioeconomic levels to 91% in high socioeconomic levels.[15]

Chileans view themselves as a majority white population. The 2011 Latinobarómetro survey asked respondents in Chile what race they considered themselves to belong to. Most answered "white" (59%), while 25% said "mestizo" and 8% self-classified as "indigenous".[20]

Taken from wikipedia


Chilean cuisine stems mainly from the combination of Spanish cuisine with traditional Chilean ingredients, with later influences from other European cuisines, particularly from Germany, Italy, Croatia, France and the Middle East. The food tradition and recipes in Chile stand out due to the varieties in flavors and colors. The country's long coastline and the Chilean peoples' relationship with the sea adds an immense array of ocean products to the variety of the food in Chile. The country's waters are home to unique species of fish and shellfish such as the Chilean sea bass, loco and picoroco. In addition, many Chilean recipes are enhanced and accompanied by wine because Chile is one of the world's largest producers of wine. The country's immense geographical diversity allows for a wide range of crops and fruits to be present in Chilean food.


Due to the immense variety of products available in Chile's geographical makeup, recipes vary in different regions of the country. There are three distinct zones dealing with Chilean gastronomy.

· Cuisine of the North

· Cuisine of the Central Coast

· Cuisine of the South

All of the varying cuisines have received some contribution from the European and Chilean people living throughout the country. Each one implementing their own customs and host of condiments such as fish, seafood, meats and poultry. Foreign influence has played a prominent role in main dishes while also providing an ample range of desserts and drinks.

The Pacific territory of Easter Island is considered part of Chile, and its own typical cuisine, a mix of Polynesian and southern Chilean flavors, consists mainly of fish and seafood, particularly lobster.

Cuisine of the North

Recipes from the northern regions of Chile

Appetizers and soup

  • Tortilla de mariscos
  • Ensalada de papas al salmón
  • Machas a la parmesana
  • Conchas de camarones
  • Camarones con salsa
  • Erizos
  • Caldillo de Congrio al Vino

Main course

Apéritifs, alcoholic beverages and soft drinks

  • Mango sour
  • Papaya sour
  • Pajarete
  • Cola de mono
  • Vaina chilena
  • Serena Libre
  • Ulpo
  • Mango con leche

Cuisine of the Central Coast

Recipes from the central regions of Chile

Appetizers and soup

· Sopa de Mariscos (seafood soup)

· Caldillo de Congrio (congridae stew)

· Locos con Mayonesa (abalone with mayonnaise)

Main course

· Pastel de choclo

· Humitas

· Porotos granados

· Pailita de choclo y crema

· Albóndigas al jugo (meatballs in sauce)

· Cazuela de ave

· Empanadas Fritas de queso (fried empanadas filled with cheese)

· Pantrucas

· Porotos con mazamorra

· Charquican

· Jaibas rellenas

· Tomaticán

· Pastel de papa

· Brochetas (a variatión of anticucho)

Baked goods and desserts

· Empolvados

· Pan de Pascua

· Pan Amasado (baked bread)

· Leche Asada

Cuisine of the South

Recipes from the South of Chile

Appetizers and soup

· Caldillo de Almejas (a clam stew)

· Chupe de Locos

· Sopa de Ostras (oyster soup)

· Pastel de pescado

· Arrollado de chancho

Main course

· Asado de cordero

· Asado al palo

· Caldillo de mariscos (seafood stew)

· Cancato

· Churrasco Chilote

· Cazuela chilota

· Cazuela de vacuno

· Sopa Chilota de pescado seco

· Curanto

· Chapaleles

· Chiporro

·  Crudos

· Empanadas de Horno

· Milcaos

· Chochoca al palo

· Pulmay

· Lloco

· Valdiviano

Baked goods and desserts

· Brazo de Reina

· Empanadas de manzana

· Kuchen

· Murta con membrillo

· Tortilla de rescoldo

· Mazamorra de manzana

· Merquén

· Sopapillas

Alcoholic beverages

· Chicha de manzana

· Caliente de chicha

· Chicha de calafate

· Licor de oro

· Muday

· Murtado

Taken from wikipedia

Doing business in CHILE

The economy of Chile is ranked as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank,[10] and is one of South America's most stable and prosperous nations,[11] leading Latin American nations in human development, competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption.[12] However, it has a high economic inequality, as measured by the Gini index.[13]

In May 2010 Chile became the first South American country to join the OECD.[14] In 2006, Chile became the country with the highest nominal GDP per capita in Latin America.[15] Chile has an inequality-adjusted human development index of 0.634, compared to 0.509 and 0.562 for neighbouring Brazil and Argentina, respectively. 5.3% of the population lives on less than US $2 a day.[16]

The Global Competitiveness Report for 2009-2010 ranks Chile as being the 30th most competitive country in the world and the first in Latin America, well above from Brazil (56th), Mexico (60th) and Argentina which ranks 85th.[15] The Ease of doing business index created by the World Bank lists Chile as 43rd in the world that encompasses better, usually simpler, regulations for businesses and stronger protections of property rights.[8] The privatized national pension system (AFP) has encouraged domestic investment and contributed to an estimated total domestic savings rate of approximately 21% of GDP.[17]



Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishing accounts only for 4.9% of the GDP as of 2007 and employed 13.6% of the country's labor force. Some major agriculture products of Chile includes grapes, apples, pears, onions, wheat, corn, oats, peaches, garlic, asparagus, beans, beef, poultry, wool, fish and timber.[20]

Chile’s position in the Southern Hemisphere leads to an agricultural season cycle opposite to those of the principal consumer markets, primarily located in the Northern Hemisphere.[21] Chile’s extreme north-south orientation produces 7 different macro-regions distinguished by climate and geographical features, which allows the country itself to stagger harvests and results in extended harvesting seasons.[21] However, the mountainous landscape of Chile limits the extent and intensity of agriculture so that arable land corresponds only to 2.62% of the total territory.[20] Through Chile’s trade agreements, its agricultural products have gained access to a market controlling 77% of the world’s GDP and by approximately 2012, 74% of Chilean agribusiness exports will be duty free.[21]

Chiles principal growing region and agricultural heartland is the Central Valley delimited by the Chilean Coast Range in the west, the Andes in the east Aconcagua River by the north and Bío-Bío River by the south. In the northern half of Chile cultivation is highly dependent on irrigation. South of the Central Valley cultivation is gradually replaced by aquaculture, silviculture, sheep and cattlefarming.

[edit] Salmon

Chileis the second largest producer of salmon in the world.[21] As of August 2007, Chile’s share of worldwide salmon industry sales was 38.2%, rising from just 10% in 1990.[21] The average growth rate of the industry for the 20 years between 1984 and 2004 was 42% per year.[21] The presence of large foreign firms in the salmon industry has brought what probably most contributes to Chile’s burgeoning salmon production, technology.[21] Technology transfer has allowed Chile to build its global competitiveness and innovation and has led to the expansion of production as well as to an increase in average firm size in the industry.[21]


The Chilean forestry industry grew to comprise 13% of the country’s total exports in 2005, making it one of the largest export sectors for Chile.[21]Radiata Pine and Eucalyptus comprise the vast majority of Chile's forestry exports.[21] Within the forestry sector, the largest contributor to total production is pulp, followed by wood-based panels and lumber.[21] Due to popular and increasing demands for Chile’s forestry products, the government is currently focusing on increasing the already vast acreage of Chile’s Pine and Eucalyptus plantations as well as opening new industrial plants.[21]


Chileproduces more than a third of the world's copper.

The mining sector in Chile is one of the pillars of Chilean economy. The Chilean government strongly supports foreign investment in the sector and has modified its mining industry laws and regulations to create a favorable investing environment for foreigners. Thanks to a large amount of copper resources, progressive legislation and a healthy investment environment, Chile has become the copper mining capital of the world, producing over 1/3 of the global copper output.[21]



Chile's financial sector has grown quickly in recent years, with a banking reform law approved in 1997 that broadened the scope of permissible foreign activity for Chilean banks. The Chilean Government implemented a further liberalization of capital markets in 2001, and there is further pending legislation proposing further liberalization. Over the last ten years, Chileans have enjoyed the introduction of new financial tools such as home equity loans, currency futures and options, factoring, leasing, and debit cards. The introduction of these new products has also been accompanied by an increased use of traditional instruments such as loans and credit cards. Chile's private pension system, with assets worth roughly $70 billion at the end of 2006, has been an important source of investment capital for the capital market. However, by 2009, it has been reported that $21 billion had been lost from the pension system to the global financial crisis.[22]


Main article: Tourism in Chile

Tourism in Chile has experienced sustained growth over the last decades. Chile received about 2.25 million foreign visitors in 2006,[23] up to 2.50 million in 2007 [24] The percentages of foreign tourists arrivals by land, air and sea were, respectively, 55.3%, 40.5% and 4.2% for that year.[23] The two main gateways for international tourists visiting Chile are Comodoro Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport and Paso Los Libertadores.

Chile a great diversity of natural landscapes, from the Mars-like landscapes of the hyperarid Atacama Desert to the glacier-fed fjords of the Chilean Patagonia, passing by the winelands backdropped by the Andes of the Central Valley and the old-growth forests of the Lakes District. Easter Island and Juan Fernández Archipelago, including Robinson Crusoe Island, are also major attractions.

Many of the most visited attractions in Chile are protected areas. The extensive Chilean protected areas system includes 32 national parks, 48 natural reserves and 15 natural monuments.[23]

Taken from wikipedia

CHILE: useful links

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