CHADIAN Facts & Figures

Size: 495,753 square miles

Population: 10,329,208

Capital: N’Djamena

Currency: Central African Franc

Weather / Climate:

Each year a tropical weather system known as the intertropical front crosses Chad from south to north, bringing a wet season that lasts from May to October in the south, and from June to September in the Sahel. Variations in local rainfall create three major geographical zones. The Sahara lies in the country's northern third. Yearly precipitations throughout this belt are under 50 millimetres (2.0 in); only the occasional spontaneous palm grove survives, the only ones to do so south of the Tropic of Cancer. The Sahara gives way to a Sahelian belt in Chad's centre; precipitation there varies from 300 to 600 mm (11.8 to 23.6 in) per year. In the Sahel, a steppe of thorny bushes (mostly acacias) gradually gives way to the south to East Sudanian savanna in Chad's Sudanese zone. Yearly rainfall in this belt is over 900 mm (35.4 in)

Taken from wikipedia

CHADIAN languages

Chad has two official languages, French and literary Arabic, and over 120 indigenous languages. A vernacular version of Arabic, Chadian Arabic, is the lingua franca.

Taken from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_of_Chad

CHADIAN people

The people of Chad speak more than 100 different languages and divide themselves into many ethnic groups. However, language and ethnicity are not the same. Moreover, neither element can be tied to a particular physical type. In Chad, European conquest and administration intensified feelings of ethnic separateness by drawing local boundaries along perceived ethnic lines. The Europeans also appointed chiefs and other local African authorities who had little legitimacy over the groups they were to lead. In general, the French favored southerners over northerners and settled populations over nomads. This bias continued after independence and has been an important element in internecine conflict.

Although the possession of a common language shows that its speakers have lived together and have a common history, peoples also change languages. This is particularly so in Chad, where the openness of the terrain, marginal rainfall, frequent drought and famine, and low population densities have encouraged physical and linguistic mobility. Slave raids among{specify} non-Muslim peoples, internal slave trade, and exports of captives northward from the ninth to the twentieth centuries also have resulted in language changes.

Anthropologists view ethnicity as being more than genetics. Like language, ethnicity implies a shared heritage, partly economic, where people of the same ethnic group may share a livelihood, and partly social, taking the form of shared ways of doing things and organizing relations among individuals and groups. Ethnicity also involves a cultural component made up of shared values and a common worldview. Like language, ethnicity is not immutable. Shared ways of doing things change over time and alter a group's perception of its own identity.

Not only do the social aspects of ethnic identity change but the biological composition (or gene pool) also may change over time. Although most ethnic groups emphasize intermarriage, people are often proscribed from seeking partners among close relatives—a prohibition that promotes biological variation. In all groups, the departure of some individuals or groups and the integration of others also changes the biological component.

The Chadian government has avoided official recognition of ethnicity. With the exception of a few surveys conducted shortly after independence, little data were available on this important aspect of Chadian society. Nonetheless, ethnic identity was a significant component of life in Chad.

Population

10,543 thousand (2010, According to the U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base: Demographics of Chad

Age structure

0-14 years: 46% (male 2,510,656/female 2,441,780)

15-64 years: 51% (male 2,531,896/female 2,960,406)

65 years and over: 2.9% (male 131,805/female 182,402) (2011 est.)

Median age

Total: 16.8 years

Male: 15.6 years

Female: 17.9 years (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

2.009% (2011 est.)

Taken from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Chad

CHADIAN food

Chadian cuisine is the cooking traditions, practices, foods and dishes associated with the Republic of Chad. Chadians utilize a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits and meats.[2] Commonly consumed grains include millet, sorghum and rice as staple foods.[2] Commonly eaten vegetables include okra and cassava, and a variety of fruits are eaten, including bananas, mangoes, guavas, raisins, dates and peanuts.[2] Meats include mutton[1], chicken[1], Goat[1], fish and beef.[2]

Northern and southern cuisines

Fish is abundant in northern Chad, including tilapia, perch, eel, and carp.[1] Southern Chadians don't consume many dairy products from livestock, are not as dependent upon fish as a protein source, and have more options in using fruits and spices compared to people in northern Chad.

Common foods and dishes

  • Porridge made from millet and sorghum is common throughout the country
  • Millet pancakes and fried balls.[2] Aiyash is a dish eaten by Chadian Arabs in which millet balls are dipped in various sauces.[2]
  • Nile perch[2]
  • Broiled fish
  • Dried, salted and smoked fish [1]
  • Okra-based gumbo[2]
  • Sauces prepared with meat, fish and spices
  • Jarret de boeuf is a traditional beef and vegetable stew
  • Peanut butter[1]
  • Squash stew and peanuts [1]

Common beverages

Taken from wikipedia

Places to go in CHAD

 

Doing business in CHAD

The United Nations' Human Development Index ranks Chad as the seventh poorest country in the world, with 80% of the population living below the poverty line. The GDP (Purchasing power parity) per capita was estimated as US$1,600 in 2008.[62] Chad is part of the Bank of Central African States, the Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa (UDEAC) and the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA).[63] Its currency is the CFA franc. Years of civil war have scared away foreign investors; those who left Chad between 1979 and 1982 have only recently begun to regain confidence in the country's future. In 2000 major direct foreign investment in the oil sector began, boosting the country's economic prospects.[54][28]

Over 80% of Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and livestock raising for its livelihood.[54] The crops grown and the locations of herds are determined by the local climate. In the southernmost 10 percent of the territory lies the nation's most fertile cropland, with rich yields of sorghum and millet. In the Sahel only the hardier varieties of millet grow, and these with much lower yields than in the south. On the other hand, the Sahel is ideal pastureland for large herds of commercial cattle and for goats, sheep, donkeys and horses. The Sahara's scattered oases support only some dates and legumes.[5]

Before the development of oil industry, cotton dominated industry and the labour market and accounted for approximately 80% of export earnings.[64] Cotton remains a primary export, although exact figures are not available. Rehabilitation of Cotontchad, a major cotton company that suffered from a decline in world cotton prices, has been financed by France, the Netherlands, the European Union, and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). The parastatal is now expected to be privatised.[28]

ExxonMobil leads a consortium of Chevron and Petronas that has invested $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves estimated at one billion barrels in southern Chad. Oil production began in 2003 with the completion of a pipeline (financed in part by the World Bank) that links the southern oilfields to terminals on the Atlantic coast of Cameroon. As a condition of its assistance, the World Bank insisted that 80% of oil revenues be spent on development projects. In January 2006 the World Bank suspended its loan programme when the Chadian government passed laws reducing this amount.[28][53] On July 14, 2006, the World Bank and Chad signed a memorandum of understanding under which the Government of Chad commits 70% of its spending to priority poverty reduction programmes.[65]

Civil war crippled the development of transport infrastructure; in 1987, Chad had only 30 kilometres (19 mi) of paved roads. Successive road rehabilitation projects improved the network[66] to 550 kilometres (340 mi) by 2004.[67] Nevertheless, the road network is limited; roads are often unusable for several months of the year. With no railways of its own, Chad depends heavily on Cameroon's rail system for the transport of Chadian exports and imports to and from the seaport of Douala.[68]

An international airport serves the capital and provides regular direct flights to Paris and several African cities. The telecommunication system is basic and expensive, with fixed telephone services provided by the state telephone company SotelTchad. Only 14,000 fixed telephone lines serve all of Chad, one of the lowest telephone density rates in the world. Chad's energy sector has suffered from years of mismanagement by the parastatal Chad Water and Electric Society (STEE), which provides power for 15% of the capital's citizens and covers only 1.5% of the national population.[69] Most Chadians burn biomass fuels such as wood and animal manure for power.[70] Chad's cities face serious difficulties of municipal infrastructure; only 48% of urban residents have access to potable water and only 2% to basic sanitation.[42][71]

The country's television audience is limited to N'Djamena. The only television station is the state-owned TeleTchad. Radio has a far greater reach, with 13 private radio stations. Newspapers are limited in quantity and distribution, and circulation figures are small due to transportation costs, low literacy rates, and poverty.[70][72] While the constitution defends liberty of expression, the government has regularly restricted this right, and at the end of 2006 began to enact a system of prior censorship on the media.

Taken from wikipedia

CHAD: useful links

http://www.primature-tchad.org/

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13164686

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