CANADIAN Facts & Figures

Size: 9,984,670 km2

Population: 34,626,00

Capital: Ottawa

Currency: Canadian dollar

Weather / Climate:

The climate in Canada depends on how close to the coast you travel. Many inland cities, especially those in the Prairies, experience extreme changes in weather. Winnipeg, Manitoba (also colloquially known as 'Winterpeg') has hot summers that can easily exceed 35°C (95°F), yet experiences very cold winters where temperatures around -40°C (-40°F) are not uncommon. The hottest temperature in Canadian ever recorded was in southern Saskatchewan, at 45°C (113°F). Conversely, southern coastal cities in British Columbia are generally milder year-round and get little snow. The Atlantic Provinces are usually not as cold as the Prairies and the Territories although they constantly experience temperatures below zero in the winter. The Atlantic Provinces are also well known to experience many blizzards during the winter season. In British Columbia, Vancouver and Victoria are temperate and get very little snow, and seldom experience temperatures below 0°C or above 27°C (32-80°F).

Apart from having usually milder temperatures year-round than the interior areas of Canada, coastal areas can have very high rainfall. Areas such as coastal British Columbia get some of the highest rainfall in Canada, but it can be very dry in the southern BC Interior due to the Coastal Mountains acting as a rain shadow. The wind can be a big factor on the Canadian Prairies because there are wide open areas not unlike those in the Midwest states of the US, and makes for unpleasant windchills during cold weather in the winter. The average temperature is typically colder in Canada than in the US and Western Europe as a whole, so bring your jacket if visiting between October and May, and early and later than this if visiting areas further north. The rest of the year, in most of the country, daytime highs are generally above 15°C (60°F).

Taken from wikipedia

CANADIAN languages

Home language: rates of language use 1971-2006

The percentage of the population speaking English, French or both languages most often at home has declined since 1986, the decline has been greatest for French. The proportion of the population who speak neither English nor French in the home has increased substantially. Geographically, this trend remains constant, as usage of English and French have declined in both English and French speaking regions of the country, but French has declined more rapidly both inside and outside of Quebec. The table below shows the percentage of the total Canadian population who speak Canada's official languages most often at home from 1971-2006.[9]

Use of English

In 2006, just under 20.6 million Canadians, representing 58% of the population, spoke English at home.[11] English is the major language everywhere in Canada except Quebec, and most Canadians (85%) can speak English. In Quebec, English is the preferred language of only 13.4% of the population, but 46% of Québécois can speak English.[12] Nationally, Francophones are five times more likely to speak English than Anglophones are to speak French - 44% and 9% respectively.[13] Only 3.6% of Canada's English-speaking population resides in Quebec—mostly in Montreal.

More Canadians know how to speak English than speak it at home.[14] Since 1971, Knowledge of English has increased slightly and usage of English at home has remained relatively constant.[15]

In 2006, just over 6.6 million Canadians spoke French at home. Of these, 91.2% resided in Quebec. Outside Quebec, the largest French-speaking populations are found in New Brunswick (which is home to 3.5% of Canada’s francophones) and Ontario (4.4%, residing primarily in the eastern and northeastern parts of the province and in Toronto). Overall, 69% of Canadians cannot speak French; outside of Quebec only 11% of Canadians report that they can have a conversation in French. Smaller indigenous French-speaking communities exist in some other provinces.[16] For example, a vestigial community exists on Newfoundland's Port au Port Peninsula; a remnant of the "French Shore" along the island's west coast.

The percentage of the population who speak French both by Mother tongue and home language has decreased over the past three decades. Whereas the number of those who speak English at home is higher than the number of people whose mother tongue is English, the opposite is true for Francophones. There are fewer people who speak French at home, than learned French after birth.[17]

Ethnic diversity is growing in French Canada, but still lags behind the English-speaking parts of the country. In 2006, 91.5% of Quebecers considered themselves to be of either "French" or "Canadian" origin. As a result of the growth in immigration, since the 1970s, from countries in which French is a widely-used language, 3.4% of Quebecers indicated that they were of Haitian, Belgian, Swiss, Lebanese or Moroccan origin.[18] Other groups of non-francophone immigrants (Irish Catholics, Italian, Portuguese, etc.) have also assimilated into French over the generations. The Irish, who started arriving in large numbers in Quebec in the 1830s, were the first such group, which explains why it has been possible for Quebec to have had five premiers of Anglo-Irish ethnic origin: John Jones Ross (1884–87), Edmund James Flynn (1896–97), Daniel Johnson, Sr. (1966–68), Pierre-Marc Johnson (1985) and Daniel Johnson, Jr. (1994).

The assimilation of francophones outside Quebec into the English-Canadian society means that outside Quebec, over one million Canadians who claim English as their mother tongue are of French ethnic origin. (1991 Census, ethnic origin and mother tongue, by province).

According to the 2006 census, 98% of Canadian residents are able to speak at least one of the country’s two official languages,[20] As well, at least 35% of Canadians speak more than one language. Bilingualism in the two official languages is much less widespread; of these multilingual Canadians, less than half (5,448,850 persons, or 17.4% of all Canadians) are able to speak both the official languages.[21]

However, in Canada the terms "bilingual" and "unilingual" are normally used to refer to bilingualism in English and French. In this sense, nearly 83% of Canadians are "unilingual".

Since the implementation of the Official Languages Act in 1969, the percentage of bilingual Canadians has risen from about 13% to 17%. However the rate has leveled off since the 1996 census.

Non-official languages that are unique to canada

Aboriginal langauges

Main articles: Canadian Aboriginal syllabics and Indigenous languages of the Americas

Canadais home to a rich variety of indigenous languages that are spoken nowhere else. There are 11 Aboriginal language groups in Canada, made up of more than 65 distinct languages and dialects.[30] Of these, only Cree, Inuktitut and Ojibway have a large enough population of fluent speakers to be considered viable to survive in the long term.[31]

Two of Canada's territories give official status to native languages. In Nunavut, Inuktitut and Inuinnaqtun are official languages alongside the national languages of English and French, and Inuktitut is a common vehicular language in territorial government.[32] In the Northwest Territories, the Official Languages Act declares that there are eleven different languages: Chipewyan, Cree, English, French, Gwich’in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and T??ch?.[33] Besides English and French, these languages are not vehicular in government; official status entitles citizens to receive services in them on request and to deal with the government in them.[31]

According to the 2006 census, less than one percent of Canadians (just over 250,000 individuals) know how to speak an aboriginal language. About half this number (129,865) reported using an aboriginal language on a daily basis.[31]

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_of_Canada#The_two_official_languages

CANADIAN culture

 

CANADIAN people

Canadians were able to self-identify one or more ethnic origins in the 2006 census. Percentages may therefore add up to 100%. The most common response was 'Canadian'. As data is completely self-reported, and reporting individuals may have varying definitions of "Ethnic origin" (or may not know their ethnic origin), these figures should not be considered an exact record of the relative prevalence of different ethnocultural ancestries.

Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, approximately 28% of the population will be foreign-born. The number of people belonging to visible minority groups will double,[8] and make up the majority of the population in Toronto and Vancouver.

Single responses:18.40% of respondents gave a single response of 'Canadian', while a further 13.82% identified with both 'Canadian', and one or more other ancestries. 4.38% of respondents gave a single response of English, 3.94% gave a single response of French, 3.63% gave a single response of Chinese, 2.50% gave a single response of East Indian, 2.37% gave a single response of Italian, 2.15% gave a single response of German, 1.82% gave a single response of Scottish, 1.64% gave a single response of North American Indian, 1.57% gave a single response of Irish, and 1.03% gave a single response of Filipino.

Multiple responses:Counting both single and multiple responses, the most commonly identified ethnic origins were (2006):

Taken from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Canada

CANADIAN food

Canadian cuisinevaries widely depending on the regions of the nation. The former Canadian prime ministerJoe Clark has been paraphrased to have noted: "Canada has a cuisine of cuisines. Not a stew pot, but a smorgasbord."

The three earliest cuisines of Canada have First Nations, English, and French roots, with the traditional cuisine of English Canada closely related to British and American cuisine, while the traditional cuisine of French Canada has evolved from French cuisine and the winter provisions of fur traders. With subsequent waves of immigration in the 18th and 19th century from Central, Southern, and Eastern Europe, and also from China, the regional cuisines were subsequently augmented. A noteworthy fact is that Canada is the world's largest producer of Maple syrup.

Cultural contributions

Since the beginning, Canadian food has been shaped and impacted by continual waves of immigration, with the types of foods and from different regions and periods of Canada reflecting this immigration.[3] The traditional cuisine of the Arctic and the Canadian Territories is based on wild game and Inuit and First Nations cooking methods; conversely bannock, which is popular across First Nations and Native American communities throughout the continent, is a method for making pan-fried bread introduced to their culture by Scottish fur traders.

The settlers and traders from the British Isles account for the culinary influences of early English Canada in the Maritimes and Southern Ontario (Upper Canada)[3], while French settlers account for the cuisine of southern Quebec (Lower Canada), Northern Ontario, and New Brunswick[3]. Many of the more south western regions of Ontario have strong Dutch and Scandinavian influences, while German, Ukrainian, and Polish cuisines are strong influences to the cuisine of the western Canadian provinces. Also noteworthy is the cuisine of the Doukhobors, Russian-descended vegetarians.

The Waterloo, Ontario, region has a tradition of Mennonite and Germanic cookery.

The Jewish immigrants to Canada during the late 1800's also play a significant role to foods in Canada. The Montreal-style bagel and Montreal-style smoked meat are both food items developed by Jewish communities living in Montreal.

Much of what are considered "Chinese dishes" in Canada are more likely to be Canadian or North American inventions, with the Chinese of each region tailoring their traditional cuisine to local tastes.This Canadian Chinese cuisine is widespread across the country, with great variation from place to place. The Chinese buffet, although found in the U.S. and other parts of Canada, had its origins in early Gastown, Vancouver, c.1870 and came out of the practice of the many Scandinavians' working in the woods and mills around the shantytown getting the Chinese cook to put out a steam table on a sideboard, so they could "load up" and leave room on the dining table (presumably for "drink").[4][5]Ginger beef is a popular Chinese food purportedly originating in Western Canada.

The cuisines of Newfoundland and the Maritime provinces derive mainly from British and Irish cooking, with a preference for salt-cured fish, beef, and pork. Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia also maintain strong British cuisine traditions.

National food

Common contenders as the Canadian national food include:

According to an informal survey by the Globe and Mail conducted through Facebook from collected comment, users considered the following to be the Canadian National dish, with Maple syrup likely above all the other foods if it was considered:[11]

Taken from wikipedia

Places to go in CANADA

 

 

 

 

 

 

Doing business in CANADA

Canadais the world's eleventh-largest economy, with a 2012 nominal GDP of approximately US$1.77 trillion.[6] It is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the G8, and is one of the world's top ten trading nations, with a highly globalized economy.[136][137] Canada is a mixed economy, ranking above the US and most western European nations on the Heritage Foundation's index of economic freedom,[138] and experiencing a relatively low level of income disparity.[139] In 2008, Canada's imported goods were worth over $442.9 billion, of which $280.8 billion originated from the United States, $11.7 billion from Japan, and $11.3 billion from the United Kingdom.[140] The country's 2009 trade deficit totaled C$4.8 billion, compared with a C$46.9 billion surplus in 2008.[141]

Since the early 20th century, the growth of Canada's manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy to an urbanized, industrial one. Like many other First World nations, the Canadian economy is dominated by the service industry, which employs about three-quarters of the country's workforce.[142] However, Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of its primary sector, in which the logging and petroleum industries are two of the most prominent components.[143]

Canadais one of the few developed nations that are net exporters of energy.[144] Atlantic Canada possesses vast offshore deposits of natural gas, and Alberta also hosts large oil and gas resources. The immense Athabasca oil sands give Canada the world's second-largest proven oil reserves, after Saudi Arabia.[145] Canada is additionally one of the world's largest suppliers of agricultural products; the Canadian Prairies are one of the most important global producers of wheat, canola, and other grains.[146] Canada is a major producer of zinc and uranium, and is a leading exporter of many other minerals, such as gold, nickel, aluminum, and lead.[144][147] Many towns in northern Canada, where agriculture is difficult, are sustainable because of nearby mines or sources of timber. Canada also has a sizable manufacturing sector centred in southern Ontario and Quebec, with automobiles and aeronautics representing particularly important industries.[148]

Canada's economic integration with the United States has increased significantly since World War II. The Automotive Products Trade Agreement of 1965 opened Canada's borders to trade in the automobile manufacturing industry. In the 1970s, concerns over energy self-sufficiency and foreign ownership in the manufacturing sectors prompted Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau's Liberal government to enact the National Energy Program (NEP) and the Foreign Investment Review Agency (FIRA).[149] In the 1980s, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney's Progressive Conservatives abolished the NEP and changed the name of FIRA to "Investment Canada", in order to encourage foreign investment.[150] The Canada – United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) of 1988 eliminated tariffs between the two countries, while the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) expanded the free-trade zone to include Mexico in 1994.[146] In the mid-1990s, Jean Chrétien's Liberal government began to post annual budgetary surpluses, and steadily paid down the national debt.[151]

The global financial crisis of 2008 caused a major recession, which led to a significant rise in unemployment in Canada.[152] By October 2009, Canada's national unemployment rate had reached 8.6 percent, with provincial unemployment rates varying from a low of 5.8 percent in Manitoba to a high of 17 percent in Newfoundland and Labrador.[153] Between October 2008 and October 2010, the Canadian labour market lost 162,000 full-time jobs and a total of 224,000 permanent jobs.[154]Canada's federal debt was estimated to total $566.7 billion for the fiscal year 2010–11, up from $463.7 billion in 2008–09.[155] In addition, Canada's net foreign debt rose by $41 billion to $194 billion in the first quarter of 2010.[156] However, Canada's regulated banking sector (comparatively conservative among G8 nations), the federal government's pre-crisis budgetary surpluses, and its long-term policies of lowering the national debt, resulted in a less severe recession compared to other G8 nations. As of late 2012, the majority of the Canadian economy has stabilized, although the country remains troubled by slow growth, sensitivity to the Eurozone crisis and higher-than-normal unemployment rates.[157][158][159] The federal government and many Canadian industries have also started to expand trade with emerging Asian markets, in an attempt to diversify exports; in 2011, Asia was Canada's second-largest export market, after the United States.[160][161] Widely debated oil pipeline proposals, in particular, are hoped to increase exports of Canadian oil reserves to China.[162][163]

Taken from wikipedia

CANADA: useful links

http://www.livingin-canada.com/

http://www.aircanada.com

http://uk.canada.travel/

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/country_profiles/1198865.stm

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