Size: 19,741 square miles

Population: 3,843,126

Capital: Sarajevo

Currency: Convertible Mark

Weather / Climate:

Bosnia-Herzegovina's climate is different for each province. (1.) Herzegovina and the southern area has a modified Mediterranean climate with an average annual precipitation of 600 to 800 mm (24 to 31.5 inches) while (2.) the central and northern area of Bosnia has a modified Pannoian or Alpine climate with an average annual precipitation of 1,500 to 2,500 mm (59 to 98 inches). Average temperature ranges in Sarajevo are from -.5 degrees Celsius (31 degrees Fahrenheit) in January to 19.6 degrees Celsius (67 degrees Fahrenheit) in July.



Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian are co-official standards of a single language (generally called Serbo-Croatian in English) and as such are mutually intelligible among all three ethnic groups. Bosnian and Croatian is written in the Latin alphabet while Serbian is written in both Latin and Cyrillic.

The ethnic groups all speak the Shtokavian dialect of Serbo-Croatian and dialectal differences naturally exist over the country:

· Bosniaks: Predominantly Ijekavian

· Serbs: Predominantly Ijekavian

· Croats: Predominantly Ijekavian

Taken From:




Bosniais home to three ethnic "constituent peoples": Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats. Tensions between the three constitutional peoples remain high and often provoke political disagreements.

According to the 1991 census, Bosnia and Herzegovina had a population of 4,377,033, while the 1996 UNHCR census showed a decrease to 3,919,953.

Ethnically, according to the last official census data from 1991, 1,902,956 (43.5%) are Bosniaks, 1,366,104 (31.2%) Serbs and 760,852 (17.4%) Croats, with 242,682 (5.5%) Yugoslavs. The remaining 2.4% of the population – numbering 104,439 – consisted of various other ethnicities. According to the 1996 UNHCR census, 1,805,910 (46.1%) are Bosniaks, 1,484,530 (37.9%) Serbs, 571,317 (14.6%) Croats and 58,196 (1.5%) others and unspecified. According to 2000 data from the CIA World Factbook, Bosnia's three largest ethnic groups have the following percentages - the Bosniaks (48%), the Serbs (37.1%) and the Croats (14.3%). 99% of the population spoke Serbo-Croatian. There is a strong correlation between ethnic identity and religion in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Muslims constitute 45% of the population, Orthodox 36%, Roman Catholics 15%, and other groups, including Jews and Protestants, 4%.

Large population migrations during the Yugoslav wars in the 1990s have caused demographic shifts in the country. No census has been taken since 1991/96, and political disagreements have made it impossible to organize one. Nevertheless, a census has been planned for 2011. As almost all of the post-war data is simply an estimate, a census would be a statistical, inclusive, and objective way to analyze the demographics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Most sources, however, estimate the population to be about four million, representing a decrease of 500,000 since 1991.

The last official estimate for 2010 shows a decrease of the population to 3,843,126.

According to BHAS (Agency for Statistics of BiH) estimation of population done on 30 June 2009 is 3,842,566

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When you travel to Bosnia and Herzegovina, be sure that you enjoy traditional dishes. Food in Bosnia and Herzegovina puts a spin on Balkan entrees and has a little something for every traveler, whether you love a good steak or you’re strictly veggie.

Bosnian food can be rich, but not in an unhealthy or unappetizing way. Fresh ingredients and whole foods make meals from Bosnia and Herzegovina totally appealing.

Start your day with a simple breakfast. The usual morning meal is a kwizija, or hearty meal. Stock up on a variety of small courses that include scrambled eggs and bread with a spread like jam, butter, and honey. Drink a strong, traditional coffee with a dash sweet sugar, or a cup of black tea. The feature of the breakfast is a soft white cheese straight from the farms in Bosnia and Herzegovina’s countryside.

If you like meat and potato courses, you’ll be thrilled with the options you will find for entree selections in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Lunch is generally the largest meal of the day, so find the most intriguing restaurant in town and indulge!

Try dishes like the Bosnian bosanki lonac, a slow-roasted pot of meat and vegetables, or japrak, made up of cabbage rolls stuffed with a savory filling. If you are traveling in Mostar, try the trout, which is a specialty to the area. A buttery, flaky texture awaits, and is one option for someone who loves fish.

Dinner in Bosnia and Herzegovina is generally light. You’ll probably have it after 8:00 p.m., and for Americans and the British, this may seem quite late. Pack a snack of some Bosnian sweets to tide you over, like a tiny square of baklava, normally reserved for special occasions amongst Bosnians.

If you take advantage of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s surprisingly lively nightlife, try the Bosnian fast food called when you’re out late. This food may be fast but is actually quite traditional, dating back nearly 400 years! Your Bosnian cevaps, as they are nicknamed, will be made up of small sausages and chopped onions, folded in a pita bread called somun.

Locally-produced wines and brandies spoil any connoisseur for choice. Sample the rakija, which is available in lots of fruit flavors like plum and grape.

Besides the famous baklava, desserts often have fresh fruit and cream as main ingredients. Try the tufahijia, which is a delicious dessert dish made from apples filled with walnuts, and then topped with a rich layer of whipped cream. If you are partial to pudding, have the krempita, with a creamy, soft flavor similar to cheesecake. If you have room, you’ll want to try this delicious Bosnian food.

What makes Bosnian food even better is the overwhelming sense of hospitality and warmth. You’ll be offered cookies, cakes, sweets, coffee, meat platters, and cheese samplers, and once you start sampling, you won’t be able to stop. Just be sure to save room for the main course!

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Bosnia faces the dual problem of rebuilding a war-torn country and introducing market reforms to its formerly centrally planned economy. One legacy of the previous era is a greatly overstaffed military industry; under former leader Josip Broz Tito, military industries were promoted in the republic, resulting in the development of a large share of Yugoslavia's defense plants but fewer commercially-viable firms.

For the most of Bosnia's history, agriculture has been based on small and inefficient privately owned farms; food has traditionally been a net import for the republic.[82]

The war in the 1990s caused a dramatic change in the Bosnian economy.[83] GDP fell by 75% and the destruction of physical infrastructure devastated the economy.[84] While much of the production capacity has been restored, the Bosnian economy still faces considerable difficulties. Figures show GDP and per capita income increased 10% from 2003 to 2004; this and Bosnia's shrinking national debt being positive trends, but high unemployment and a large trade deficit remain cause for concern.

The national currency is the (Euro-pegged) Convertible Mark (KM), controlled by the currency board. Annual inflation is the lowest relative to other countries in the region at 1.9% in 2004.[85] The international debt was $3.1 billion (2005 est) – the smallest amount of debt owed of all the former Yugoslav republics. Real GDP growth rate was 5% for 2004 according to the Bosnian Central Bank of BiH and Statistical Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Bosnia and Herzegovina has one of the highest income equality rankings in the world, ranking eighth out of 193 nations.[86]

According to Eurostat data, Bosnia and Herzegovina's PPS GDP per capita stood at 29 per cent of the EU average in 2010.[87]

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) announced a loan to Bosnia worth $500 million to be delivered by Stand-By Arrangement. This is scheduled to be approved in September 2012.[88]

Overall value of foreign direct investment (1999–2008):[89]

  • 1999: €166 million
  • 2000: €159 million
  • 2001: €133 million
  • 2002: €282 million
  • 2003: €338 million
  • 2004: €534 million
  • 2005: €421 million
  • 2006: €556 million
  • 2007: €1.628 billion
  • 2008: €1.083 billion

From 1994 to 2008, €5.3 billion were invested in the country.[90]

The top investor countries (1994–2007):[89]

  • Austria (€1,294 million)
  • Serbia (€773 million)
  • Croatia (€434 million)
  • Slovenia (€427 million)
  • Switzerland (€337 million)
  • Germany (€270 million)
  • Italy (€94.29 million)
  • Netherlands (€63.52 million)
  • United Arab Emirates (€56.70 million)
  • Turkey (€54.81 million)
  • All Other Countries (€892.54 million)

Foreign investments by sector for (1994–2007):[89]

  • 37.7% Manufacturing
  • 21% Banking
  • 4.9% Services
  • 9.6% Trade
  • 0.30% Transport
  • 1% Tourism

The United States Embassy in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina produces the Country Commercial Guide – an annual report that delivers a comprehensive look at Bosnia and Herzegovina’s commercial and economic environment, using economic, political, and market analysis. It can be viewed on Embassy Sarajevo’s website.

Taken from wikipedia


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